Children and adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are at risk for decreased bone mass. Growth hormone (GH) and its mediator, IGF-1, promote skeletal growth. Recent observations have suggested that children and adolescents with T1DM are at risk for decreased bone mineral acquisition. We examined the relationships between metabolic control, IGF-1 and its binding proteins (IGFBP-1, -3, -5), and bone mass in T1DM in adolescent girls 12–15 yr of age with T1DM (n = 11) and matched controls (n = 10). Subjects were admitted overnight and given a standardized diet. Periodic blood samples were obtained, and bone measurements were performed. Serum GH, IGFBP-1 and -5, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glucose, and urine magnesium levels were higher and IGF-1 values were lower in T1DM compared with controls (p < 0.05). Whole body BMC/bone area (BA), femoral neck areal BMD (aBMD) and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), and tibia cortical BMC were lower in T1DM (p < 0.05). Poor diabetes control predicted lower IGF-1 (r2 = 0.21) and greater IGFBP-1 (r2 = 0.39), IGFBP-5 (r2 = 0.38), and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP; r2 = 0.41, p < 0.05). Higher urine magnesium excretion predicted an overall shorter, lighter skeleton, and lower tibia cortical bone size, mineral, and density (r2 = 0.44–0.75, p < 0.05). In the T1DM cohort, earlier age at diagnosis was predictive of lower IGF-1, higher urine magnesium excretion, and lighter, thinner cortical bone (r2 ≥ 0.45, p < 0.01). We conclude that poor metabolic control alters the GH/IGF-1 axis, whereas greater urine magnesium excretion may reflect subtle changes in renal function and/or glucosuria leading to altered bone size and density in adolescent girls with T1DM.