Seven aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases from sheep liver were co-purified as high mol. wt. entities to constant specific activities. The purified multienzyme preparation displayed an apparent mol. wt. of approximately 10(6) and was composed of 11 distinct polypeptides, as revealed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). To test the assumption that all of these components were physically associated within the same complex, the purified preparation was subjected to immunoprecipitation by antibodies raised against its lysyl- or methionyl-tRNA synthetase component. Depending on the limiting concentrations of the specific antibodies used, from 5 to 40% of the input protein was recovered in the immunoprecipitate. Its polypeptide composition, as revealed by SDS-PAGE, was indistinguishable from that of the original material. The immunoprecipitation reaction was highly specific, as attested by the observation that IgG from nonimmunized rabbit failed to precipitate any of the 11 polypeptides, even when used in 30-fold molar excess over input protein. We conclude that co-precipitation of all of these polypeptides by antibodies directed against a single component of the purified preparation is a consequence of their physical association within the same multienzyme complex.