ABSTRACT Objective To review timely research on childhood-onset schizophrenia in view of advances in biological research on, and neurodevelopmental theories of, the later-onset disorder. Method Research issues are outlined including further clarification of ICD- and DSM-defined childhood schizophrenia, and differentiation from autism “spectrum” and other subtle, chronic developmental disorders. Key neurobiological advances are reviewed for which child studies are relevant and feasible. Conclusion: It is anticipated that narrowly defined childhood-onset schizophrenics will constitute a predominately male population. A high rate of family illness or chromosomal and/or brain developmental abnormalities, which will be instructive regarding the pathophysiology of later-onset schizophrenia, is expected.