Abstract We evaluated the benefits of a novel formulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) based on the incorporation of VIP-loaded rhodamine-conjugated liposomes (VIP-Rh-Lip) within hyaluronic acid (HA) gel (Gel-VIP-Rh-Lip) for the treatment of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in comparison with VIP-Rh-Lip alone. In vitro release study and rheological analysis showed that interactions between HA chains and liposomes resulted in increased viscosity and reinforced elasticity of the gel. In vivo a single intravitreal injection of Gel-VIP-Rh-Lip was performed in rats 7 days prior to uveitis induction by subcutaneous lipopolysaccharide injection. The maximal ocular inflammation occurs within 16–24 h in controls (VIP-Rh-Lip, unloaded-Rh-Lip). Whereas intraocular injection of VIP-Rh-Lip had no effect on EIU severity compared with controls, Gel-VIP-Rh-Lip reduced significantly the clinical score and number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the eye. The fate of liposomes, VIP and HA in the eyes, regional and inguinal lymph nodes and spleen was analyzed by immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy. Retention of liposomes by HA gel was observed in vitro and in vivo. Inflammation severity seemed to impact on system stability resulting in the delayed release of VIP. Thus, HA gel containing VIP-Rh-Lip is an efficient strategy to obtain a sustained delivery of VIP in ocular and lymph node tissues.