A survey of the Australian barley powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) population was conducted in 2010 and 2011. Three hundred and sixty-two isolates of the pathogen were collected from 18 locations across all six states of Australia. Thirty-two barley differentials were used and 11 genotypes were able to differentiate the population with virulence frequencies varying from 14.5 % to 96.6 %. Twenty-seven pathotypes were detected. Fifteen of them were found in both years and they represented 92.0 % of all isolates examined. No virulence was found on a further 16 major genes for resistance (Mla1, Mla3, Mla6, Mla7, Mla9, Mla10, Mla12, Mla13, Mla23, MlaN81, Mlh, MlLa, Mlp1, Ml(IM9), Ml(St) and mlo) indicating a relatively simple population and the ready availability of diverse sources of resistance. This paper reports the powdery mildew virulences present in Australia, provides intelligence for future resistance breeding and sets a basis for further virulence studies.