Abstract A CNTs–TiO2−δ composite consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on oxygen-deficient titanium dioxide (TiO2−δ) nanoparticles was synthesized and investigated as high-rate negative electrode material for Li-ion batteries. An initial reversible capacity of 185mAhg−1 was obtained at C/2, with an initial irreversible loss of 15%. The composite showed a high stability upon cycling, with 92% retention of the capacity after 37cycles, and good high rate capability, with a capacity of 102mAhg−1 at 10C. The performance of the CNTs–TiO2−δ composite was compared to that of pristine commercial TiO2 and to that of oxygen-deficient TiO2−δwith the aim of identifying the source of the improvement. Both TiO2−δ and CNTs network were found to contribute to the enhanced electrochemical performance of CNTs–TiO2−δ composite.