Successful automatic self-pollination in flowering plants is dependent on the correct development of reproductive organs. In the stamen, the appropriate growth of the filament, which largely depends on the mechanical properties of the cell wall, is required to position the anther correctly close to the stigma at the pollination stage. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are a family of enzymes that mediate the construction and restructuring of xyloglucan cross-links, thereby controlling the extensibility or mechanical properties of the cell wall in a wide variety of plant tissues. Our reverse genetic analysis has revealed that a loss-of-function mutation of an Arabidopsis XTH family gene, AtXTH28, led to a decrease in capability for self-pollination, probably due to inhibition of stamen filament growth. Our results also suggest that the role of AtXTH28 in the development of the stamen is not functionally redundant with its closest paralog, AtXTH27. Thus, our finding indicates that AtXTH28 is specifically involved in the growth of stamen filaments, and is required for successful automatic self-pollination in certain flowers in Arabidopsis thaliana.