The purpose of this article is to describe the patterns of, and to analyze the reasons of spatial change(in terms of urbanization and regional development) in Argentina by employing political economy approach. Underlying this purpose is to reveal the relationship between the pattern of socio-economic development and the pattern of spatial change in Argentina. The article is composed of two parts. The first one is devoted to the theory-building on Latin American urbanization and regional development. Here, emphasis is put on the relationship between the specific pattern of industrialization(import substitution industrialization) and the concomitant agrarian change on the one hand, the resulting pattern of spatial change, on the other. In the second part of article, to analyze the Argentine situation the above-mentioned theoretical framework is employed. Historical background of unbalanced regional development(namely, highly-developed Pampa area versus the underdeveloped extra-Pampa area) and urban concentration(especially on the burgeoning metropolitan area of Buenos Aires) is explained by referring to the role of Argentina emposed by the changing demands of international capitalist system on the one hand, and the embodiment of those demands through the changing patterns of state policy(including the changing role of the Argentine state and socio-political class formation) on the other. According to the analysis, current pattern of Argentine urban system is already crystallized at the end of the nineteenth century through the increased importance of Agrarian export production system in Pampa area(especially, rural socio-economic system based on the hegemony of Pamap bourgeoise). Also, ensuing import substitution industrialization after the thirties depended more on capital-intensive(rather than on labor-intensive) methods and this pattern of industrialization increased the urban concentration furthermore mainly due to the populist socio-economic policies during the Peronista era.