Abstract Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus ( C. quinquefasciatus) is an important vector that can transmit human diseases such as West Nile virus, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. However, very limited research concerning the humoral and cellular immune defenses of C. quinquefasciatus has been done. Here we present the research on hemocyte identification and plasma including hemocyte prophenoloxidase from C. quinquefasciatus at all developmental stages in order to obtain a complete picture of C. quinquefasciatus innate immunity. We identified hemocytes into four types: prohemocytes, oenocytoids, plasmatocytes and granulocytes. Prophenoloxidase (PPO) is an essential enzyme to induce melanization after encapsulation. PPO-positive hemocytes and plasma PPO were observed at all developmental stages. As for specific hemocyte types, prophenoloxidase was found in the plasmatocytes at larval stage alone and in the smallest prohemocytes during almost all developmental stages. Moreover, the granulocytes were PPO-positive from blood-fed female mosquitoes and oenocytoids were observed PPO-positive in pupae and in adult females after blood-feeding. As for plasma, there were different patterns of PPO in C. quinquefasciatus at different developmental stages. These results are forming a basis for further studies on the function of C. quinquefasciatus hemocytes and prophenoloxidase as well as their involvement in fighting against mosquito-borne pathogens.