There is considerable evidence for the fact that early life environment in human beings are associated with future development of various metabolic diseases. Fetal programming and perinatal events appear to exert effects on later life that are independent of environmental risk factors in adults. Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms are limited and remains unclear. However several animal models and epidemiological studies have shown this association, and it is assumed secondary to the penalties of developmental plasticity. In this review, we amalgamate facts from several disciplines to support this hypothesis.