Publisher Summary Supplementation using salt is a strategy practiced worldwide, including Brazil, recommended by the World Health Organization. In 2003, the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency re-established the recommendation regarding iodine content in salt for human consumption: 20 to 60 mg of iodine per kilogram of salt. From the first national inquiry, performed in 1955, up to the third inquiry, in 1995, and the Thyromobil Project, in 2001, the surveys show a significant reduction in goiter among school-aged children, with a prevalence lower (1.4% in 2001) than that considered acceptable by the World Health Organization, i.e., 5%. The disease is no longer endemic, although it is still a localized health issue in the central–western and northern regions. Iodine nutritional risk in Brazil: the socioeconomic situation and the country's size mean many people live without access to seafood. Political factors affect iodine nutritional status because, the supply of potassium iodate from government to the salt-refining companies was discontinued in several Brazilian regions. IDDs in Brazil: are restricted to remote regions due to the intake of non-iodized salt by rural populations. The highest prevalence rates of goiter occur in the central–west and northern regions, and along the borders of these regions with the northeast region. In the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Bahia, goiter is no longer endemic.