Abstract NADPH oxidase has been shown to play an important role in cardiovascular biology. The goal of the present study was to determine whether NADPH oxidase activity is important for endothelial cell growth and migration. In proliferation assays, growth factor- or serum-induced DNA synthesis in three different types of human endothelial cells was abrogated by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, but not by inhibitors of xanthine oxidase or nitric oxide synthase. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor-induced migration of human endothelial cells was suppressed in the presence of NADPH oxidase inhibitors. These results support a potential role for NADPH oxidase in mediating angiogenesis.