Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the new scientific developments related to dog ecology, handling of the stray-dog problem, oral vaccination techniques, cost-effectiveness of control operations, the historical reports on links between wolves and dogs in rabies epidemics, and the predominant factor of public awareness. The "dog accessibility"is a key condition and term in the canine rabies control. WHO experts define this term as—the percentage of dogs in a given population that can be caught by a person without special effort. Rabies is the only communicable disease for which the moment of infection is known and associated with a fearful accident—the unexpected bite by a furious animal. Subsequent stages include: incertitude during a long period of incubation and certainty of a horrible death once symptoms develop. This sequence of events associates rabies with an incomparable public awareness, and so, this is an important prerequisite for its control. The process of dog control is being used since early times. In 1973, the WHO Expert Committee on rabies recommended compulsory dog vaccination in combination with the rigorous stray-dog control. Destruction of the superfluous stray-dog population, even by shooting and poisoning, became a basic element of rabies control, particularly in developing countries.