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Optimal swimming strategies in mate searching pelagic copepods

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  • Male Copepods Must Swim To Find Females
  • But Swimming Increases The Risk Of Meeting Predators And Is Expensive In Terms Of Energy Expenditure
  • Here I Address The Trade-Offs Between Gains And Risks And The Question Of How Much And How Fast To S
  • Radically Different Swimming Strategies Are Predicted For Different Feeding Behaviours
  • And These Predictions Are Tested Experimentally Using Representative Species
  • In General
  • Male Swimming Speeds And The Difference In Swimming Speeds Between The Genders Are Predicted And Obs
  • It Is High In Ambush Feeders
  • Where Searching (Swimming) And Feeding Are Mutually Exclusive And Low In Species
  • Where The Matured Males Do Not Feed At All
  • Ambush Feeding Males Alternate Between Stationary Ambush Feeding And Rapid Search Swimming
  • Swimming Speed And The Fraction Of Time Spent Searching Increase With Food Availability
  • As Predicted
  • This Response Is Different From The Pattern In Other Feeding Types
  • The Swimming Speeds Of Non-Feeding Males Are Predicted And Observed To Be Independent Of The Magnitu
  • Suspension Feeding Males May Search And Feed At The Same Time
  • But Feeding Is More Efficient When Hovering Than When Cruising
  • Therefore
  • Females Should Mainly Be Hovering And Males Cruising
  • Which Is Confirmed By Observations
  • Differences In Swimming Behaviour Between Genders And Feeding Types Imply Different Mortality Rates
  • Sex Ratios May Become So Female-Biased That Male Abundances Limit Population Growth
  • Demonstrating That Behaviours That Are Optimal To The Individual May Be Suboptimal To The Population
  • Ecology


Optimal swimming strategies in mate searching pelagic copepods - DTU Orbit (16/02/14) Optimal swimming strategies in mate searching pelagic copepods - DTU Orbit (16/02/14) Kiørboe T. Optimal swimming strategies in mate searching pelagic copepods. Oecologia. 2008;155(1):179-192. Available from:

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