Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is one of the most frequent Salmonella serotypes isolated from European pigs. Despite the advances in understanding the mechanisms involved in host–pathogen interactions and host cell responses to S. typhimurium, the global change that occurs in naturally exposed populations has been poorly characterized. Here, we present a proteomics study on intestinal mucosa of pigs naturally infected with S. typhimurium, in order to better understand the pathogenesis of salmonellosis and the pathways which might be affected after infection. Samples were analyzed by 2D-DIGE and 44 different proteins exhibited statistically significant differences. The data set was analyzed by employing the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the physiological function most significantly perturbed were immunological and infectious disease, cellular assembly and organization and metabolism. The pathways implicated in the porcine immune response to S. typhimurium were gluconeogenesis and Rho GDI/RhoA signaling, and our results suggest that keratins and the intermediate filaments could play an important role in the damage of the mucosa and in the success of infection. The role of these findings in salmonellosis has been discussed, as well as the importance of analyzing naturally infected animals to have a complete picture of the infection. Also, we compared the results found in this work with those obtained in a similar study using experimentally infected animals.