A 1979 survey of vision screening requirements in 52 Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) programs revealed that 17 percent of the programs had no requirements, and 17 percent required only distance visual acuity testing. An additional 25 percent required distance vision and ocular muscle-fusion tests only, and the remaining programs required various combinations of three or more tests. Fewer than two-thirds of the programs with requirements had referral criteria for the tests. The ages at which initial testing was required also varied among the programs. The differences in requirements were not related to the demographic, socioeconomic, and other variables analyzed in this study. Programs with specific referral criteria, however, had a higher percentage of referrals for vision screening than those without such criteria. Because of the variability in vision screening standards and referral criteria observed among the programs, the authors conclude that national standards are needed.