Abstract Efficacy of different chemical treatments on calcification of vascular graft in vitro and in vivo was studied. Culture medium-filled rat aortas were separately treated in 0.2% glutaraldehyde and epoxy compound, and photooxidized in 0.01% methylene blue for a shorter period (group 1). Another group of rat aortas were separately treated in the same chemicals for a longer period (group 2). All fresh and treated aortas of both groups were cultured for 21 days in an organ culture medium and implanted (except for group 1) in weanling rats for five months. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed that differently treated aortas of group 1 grow and calcify, and the smooth muscle cells between elastin fibers are the primary site of calcium deposition. In contrast, differently treated aortas of group 2 neither grew, nor did calcify in the medium except the epoxy compound cross-linked aorta of group 2 which did not grow but did calcify. Untreated aorta did not calcify. All fresh and differently treated aortic homografts calcified severely in rats. Our whole arterial segment-calcification system would be useful for analyzing the molecular and cellular mechanisms of both bioprosthetic and atherosclerotic calcification of vascular graft. New anticalcification technique is the only hope for better outcome of future vascular bioprostheses.