Abstract Trilepisium madagascariense (TM) and Antiaris africana (AA) are two underutilized plants from Nigeria. They have been subjected to standard analytical techniques in order to evaluate the proximate composition, physico-chemical properties, mineral nutrient, fatty acid composition and distribution in the lipid classes of the seeds and seed oils. The carbohydrate composition of these seeds are high; TM is 62.73 ± 0.30% and AA is 53.97 ± 0.50%. Iodine value of TM was found to be 46.10 ± 0.70 mg iodine/g while that of AA was 88.24 ± 0.50 mg iodine/g. The mineral composition of the seeds and the oils varied with K having the highest concentration in the seed and Na the highest concentration in the oils. Linoleic acid is the dominant fatty acid in the oil of AA with the highest composition in the neutral lipids while palmitic acid is the dominant fatty acid in oil of TM. Vitamin E, Gamma-Sitosterol, α and β-Amyrin, Lupeol, Stigmast-4-en-3-one, and hydrocarbons were isolated from these oils. The results of the proximate, mineral nutrient compositions, chemical characterization and fatty acid distribution of these seeds and seed oils shows their possibility as potential resources.