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Multinutrient-Fortified Juices Improve Vitamin D and Vitamin E Status in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.07.027
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Multinutrient Juice


Abstract Background Provision of fortified juices may provide a convenient method to maintain and increase blood fat-soluble vitamins. Objective To determine whether children consuming orange juice fortified with calcium and combinations of vitamins D, E, and A could increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], α-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Design A 12-week randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Participants/setting One hundred eighty participants (aged 8.04±1.42 years) were recruited at Tufts (n=70) and Boston University (n=110) during 2005-2006. Of those recruited, 176 children were randomized into three groups: CaD (700 mg calcium+200 IU vitamin D), CaDEA (700 mg calcium+200 IU vitamin D+12 IU vitamin E+2,000 IU vitamin A as beta carotene), or Ca (700 mg calcium). Children consumed two 240-mL glasses of CaD, CaDEA, or Ca fortified orange juice daily for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures Serum 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, and retinol concentrations. Statistical analyses Changes in 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, retinol, and parathyroid hormone concentrations were examined. Covariates included sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and baseline 25(OH)D, α-tocopherol, retinol, or parathyroid hormone levels. Multivariate models and repeated measures analysis of variance tested for group differences with pre–post measures (n=141). Results Baseline 25(OH)D was 68.4±27.7 nmol/L (27.4±11.10 ng/mL) ), with 21.7% of participants having inadequate 25(OH)D (<50 nmol/L [20.03 ng/mL]). The CaD group's 25(OH)D increase was greater than that of the Ca group (12.7 nmol/L [5.09 ng/mL], 95% CI 1.3 to 24.1; P=0.029). The CaDEA group's increase in α-tocopherol concentration was greater than that in the Ca or CaD groups (3.79 μmol/L [0.16 μg/mL], 95% CI 2.5 to 5.1 and 3.09 μmol/L [0.13 μg/mL], 95% CI −1.8 to 4.3), respectively (P<0.0001). Retinol levels did not change, and body weight remained as expected for growth. Conclusions Daily consumption of orange juice providing 200 IU vitamin D and 12 IU vitamin E increased 25(OH)D and α-tocopherol concentrations in young children within 12 weeks.

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