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XPS analysis and structural and morphological characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4thin films grown by sequential evaporation

Applied Surface Science
DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.03.124
  • Thin Films
  • Cu2Znsns4
  • Raman
  • Xrd
  • Xps
  • Chemistry


Abstract This work describes a procedure to grow single phase Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films with tetragonal-kesterite type structure, through sequential evaporation of the elemental metallic precursors under sulphur vapor supplied from an effusion cell. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) is mostly used for phase identification but cannot clearly distinguish the formation of secondary phases such as Cu2SnS3 (CTS) because both compounds have the same diffraction pattern; therefore the use of a complementary technique is needed. Raman scattering analysis was used to distinguish these phases. The influence of the preparation conditions on the morphology and phases present in CZTS thin films were investigated through measurements of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XRD, respectively. From transmittance measurements, the energy band gap of the CZTS films was estimated to be around 1.45eV. The limitation of XRD to identify some of the remaining phases after the growth process are investigated and the results of Raman analysis on the phases formed in samples grown by this method are presented. Further, the influence of the preparation conditions on the homogeneity of the chemical composition in the volume was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis.

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