Abstract Over the past three decades, researchers have examined various behavioral approaches to the treatment of epilepsy. One prominent line of inquiry concerns the effectiveness of neurofeedback, which entails the entrainment of specific electroencephalographic frequencies for the purpose of decreasing seizure frequencies in patients with epilepsy. This article reviews the current literature on the efficacy of neurofeedback in reducing seizure frequency. While it is clear that neurofeedback had a positive effect in most of the studies reviewed, these findings are limited due to multiple confounding factors. In the absence of any rigorously controlled studies, the relationship between neurofeedback and seizure frequency cannot be firmly established. Despite these limitations, the promising role of neurofeedback as a treatment for epilepsy is illustrated.