Abstract This paper presents an in-depth analysis toward understanding the business value components an organization can derive from adopting radio frequency identification (RFID). Although this subject is currently a hot topic, many organizations are slow in warming up to the idea of using RFID to conduct more effective and efficient business processes. We propose a framework for evaluating the business value of RFID technology, hoping that a better understanding of the business value of RFID will encourage more organizations to implement it. Emphasis is on delivering business value through refining business processes and expanding the business model. We illustrate these concepts drawing on the experience of five early adopters from the Taiwan healthcare industry and formulate this framework as a set of propositions based on relevant literature, cases from pioneers in the field and our intuition. These propositions will need to be validated through empirical evidence.