Abstract Enchytraeid and earthworm populations of a Typic Haplaquoll soil after application of the nematicides oxamyl and phenamiphos were examined for 1 yr. The nematicides had no effect on enchytraeid numbers, which were positively correlated with soil moisture and the previous month's rainfall. Earthworm populations were dominated by Allolobophora caliginosa (Savigny) with A. trapezoides (Duges) and Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny) also present. Both nematicides initially depressed earthworm numbers and the effects of phenamiphos appeared to persist until the soil became wet in Autumn. Earthworm numbers were positively correlated with soil moisture and previous month's rainfall. Enchytraeid numbers at 2.5–5 cm depth were negatively correlated with soil temperature. Numbers of enchytraeids at 0–2.5 cm depth and earthworms were not significantly related to soil temperature.