Summary Eighty-seven previously untreated patients with clinical stage D2 (bone metastases) prostate cancer have received the combination therapy with a pure antiandrogen and an LHRH agonist (or orchiectomy) as first treatment in a multicentre study for up to 34 months (average = 16.2 months). A positive objective response assessed according to the criteria of the US NPCP has been observed in all cases. Pain disappeared in all patients within 1 month and performance become normal in all (including 2 bedridden patients) within 4 months. Progression of the disease after a period of remission has been observed in only 8 patients. Only one patient has died from prostate cancer while 3 have died from other causes. The probability of continuing response and survival at 2 years for the patients who receive the combination treatment (Kaplan-Meier's method) is 81 and 91%, respectively. By contrast, in the randomized group who had orchiectomy alone, 4 of 7 have died from prostate cancer ( P < 0.05 as compared to combination therapy). In addition to a marked improvement in the remission rate and survival, combination therapy maintains a good quality of life, hot flashes and a decrease or loss of libido being the only side-effects.