Abstract Degraded fucoidan (F1) was desulfated by DMSO–MeOH. And anion exchange chromatography was performed to fractionate desulfated F1 (ds-F1) into five fractions. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed that each fraction contained at least one set of neutral and/or sulfated fucooligosaccharides in the form of methyl glycosides. And the structures of oligomeric fragments were characterized by ESI-CID-MS/MS and ESI-CID-MS/MS/MS. In addition, more structural features were shown by NMR. Therefore, it was concluded that LF1 contained a backbone of (1→3)-linked fucopyranose residues sulfated at C-4 and branched at C-2 by fucopyranose residues and fucoglucuronomannan, fucoglucuronan, galactan and xylan were found in LF-5. Finally, it was concluded that F1 was the middle component, which contained the information of both F0.5 and F2, indicating that the differences between F1 and F0.5, F2 might be derived primarily from the different needs of algae itself.