Abstract The exponential increase of consumer goods containing nanoparticles (NPs) requires a comprehensive assessment of the risks associated with the use of these materials. Given the large number of nanotechnology products that require evaluation, there is a need to expand the repertoire of accessible nanotoxicity-measurement technologies to accelerate testing and screening of nanomaterials and their effects on the environment and biological systems. This article provides an overview of electrochemical approaches that can be used for risk assessment for nanotechnology. These include:(1) electrochemical quantification of potential nanotoxicity markers; (2) microelectrodes for real-time in-situ profiling of biochemical and physiological changes in cells, tissues and organs exposed to NPs; and, (3) electrochemical methods as screening tools for particle reactivity, dissolution behavior, catalytic properties and physicochemical parameters in various exposure scenarios. We cover potential applications and provide a critical discussion of future research needs and opportunities in nanotoxicity assessment.