Abstract The study of ethnic and racial identity among minority group members has been one of the most prolific areas of inquiry within the field of Psychology. Given the increasing diversity apparent in American society, the burgeoning literature has shed light on how minority group members identify and develop notions related to their ethnic or racial group membership. There are three conceptual frameworks that have guided the study of ethnic/racial identity and they include the Nigresence model, the Identity Formation Model, and the Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity. There is an expansive literature that has examined the ways in which ethnic/racial identity develops, the associations this identity has with various outcomes such as mental health and academic achievement, and the buffering capacity of ethnic/racial identity with perceptions of discrimination. The literature suggests that the identity tied to one's ethnic or racial group serves an important function for minority group members in American society.