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The impact of dietary calcium on body weight and fat mass

Authors
Publisher
Purdue University
Publication Date
Keywords
  • Health Sciences
  • Nutrition
Disciplines
  • Biology

Abstract

Studies demonstrate that increased intakes of calcium are associated with weight loss, which is specific to loss of fat mass. The purpose of this study was to determine if long term increases in dairy calcium consumption alter body weight and fat mass in young, healthy women. In this one year dairy calcium intervention, 135 young, healthy women with dietary calcium intakes <800 mg/day, caloric intakes ≤2200 kcal/day and willing to consume dairy products were randomized to one of three groups: (1) control: continue established dietary intakes (n = 42); (2) medium dairy: increase calcium intake to approximately 1000 mg/day (n = 45); and (3) high dairy: increase calcium intake to approximately 1200 mg/day (n = 48). The main outcome measures were the year changes in body weight and fat mass. Mean calcium intakes were 742.4 ± 321.5, 1026.4 ± 311.3, and 1131.29 ± 337.2 mg/day during the intervention for the control, medium dairy, and high dairy groups (P < 0.0001), respectively. There was no significant difference between the control, medium dairy, and high dairy groups in the mean one year change in weight: 0.8 ± 2.8, 0.7 ± 3.0, 1.5 ± 4.1 kg, respectively (P = 0.45) or fat mass: −0.5 ± 2.5, 0.3 ± 2.7, 0.5 ± 3.5 kg, respectively (P = 0.26). Therefore, a diet rich in dairy products does not alter body weight or fat mass in young, healthy women over one year. In addition, increased intakes of calcium are proposed to increase lipid utilization, leading to fat mass loss. To determine if increased dairy calcium alters lipid oxidation in the women enrolled in this study, a subset from the control (n = 13) and intervention groups (n = 13) were given an isocaloric liquid meal (55% energy carbohydrate, 15% protein, 30% fat) at baseline and one year. The thermic effect of feeding after each standardized meal was measured by respiratory gas exchange. The mean one year change in lipid oxidation was higher in the intervention group (0.10 g/min) versus the control group (R 2 = 0.56, P = 0.0002). Taken together, these results suggest that a high calcium diet leads to favorable metabolic changes, which do not translate into a measurable weight loss in young, healthy women. ^

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