Abstract The mitogenicity, lethal toxicity, induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), production of nitric oxide (NO) and antitumor activity against Meth A fibrosarcoma by chemically synthesized N-acylated asparagine-linked (A-701, A-702 and A-:-703) or N-acylated serine-linked (A607) nonphosphorylated acylglucosamine and 4- 0-phosphorylated acylglucosamine (A-103) derived lipid A analogs were determined. Compound A-607 (with tetradecanoyl and ( R)-3tetradecanoyloxytetradecanoyl at the C-2 and C-3 positions) induced a significant incorporation of 3H-thymidine into splenocytes of C3H/He mice at concentrations ranging from 3.13 to 50 µM, but the mitogenic activity of A-701 (2- N-acetylglucosamine), A-702 (tetradecanoyl at the C-2), and A-703 (with ( R)-tetradecanoyloxytetradecanoyl and tetradecanoyl at the C-2 and C-3) was very weak. The lethality of A-703 and A-103 (with ( R)-3-tetradecanoyloxytetradecanoyl at the C-2 and C-3) was weaker than that of A-607 at doses of 300 and 750 nmol/kg in C57BL/6 mice loaded with D-galactosamine. Peritoneal macrophages, stimulated with A-701-A-703, caused production of TNF which induce L929 cell lysis in vitro, and A-703 showed a high production of TNF. The compounds, except for A-607, exhibited little NO production by macrophages, but did induce the NO production in the presence of interferon gamma. Induction of TNF and NO inducible activity by A-703 was lower than that of A-607. A-703, A-607 and A-103 showed antitumor activity against Meth A fibrosarcoma in BALB/c mice. When A-703 or A-103 with muramyl dipeptide was administered, A-703 failed to show combined effects, but A-103 did. We concluded from these findings that the biological potency of asparagine compounds appears to be placed between serine- and amino-free compounds.