Abstract An overview of methods for the determination of benzodiazepines in biological media, based on the application of chromatographic techniques, is presented. A general discussion of the techniques in terms of stability, selectivity, validation, standardization, detection and sensitivity is given. No single technique can be claimed as the method of choice for benzodiazepines. Gas chromatography with electron-capture detection has some strong claims and shows generally good sensitivity and reproducibility. High-performance liquid chromatographic equipment is readily available in most laboratories. The ultimate choice of an assay method for benzodiazepines will be determined by the clinical application (routine monitoring, pharmacokinetics, overdose, forensic medicine) and by the characteristics of the benzodiazepine, the expertise of the analyst, the equipment available, the desired sensitivity and specificity and the time involved in method development or adaptation and validation.