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The influence of frontal alignment in the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis on energy cost and crutch force requirements during paraplegic gait

University of Padova, BioPD
Publication Date
  • Biology
  • Design
  • Logic
  • Medicine


Reduction of energy cost and upper body load during paraplegic walking is considered to be an important criterion in future developments of walking systems. A high energy cost limits the maximum walking distance in the current devices, whereas wrist and shoulder pathology can deteriorate because of the high upper body load. A change in alignment of the mechanical brace in the frontal plane, i.e. abduction, can contribute to a more efficient gait pattern with sufficient foot clearance with less pelvic lateral sway. A decrease in pelvic lateral sway after aligning in abduction results in a shift of the centre of mass to the swing leg crutch which may result in a decrease in required crutch force on stance side to maintain foot clearance. Five paraplegic subjects were provided with a standard Advanced Reciprocating Gait Orthosis (ARGO) and an ARGO aligned in 4 different degrees of abduction (0°, 3°, 6° and 9°). After determining an optimal abduction angle for each of the subjects, a cross over design was used to compare the ARGO with the individually optimised abducted orthosis. An abduction angle between 0° and 3° was chosen as optimal abduction angle. Subjects were not able to walk satisfactory with abduction angles 6° and 9°. A significant reduction in crutch peak force on stance side was found (approx. 12% , p < 0.01) in the abducted orthosis. Reduction in crutch force time integral (15%) as well as crutch peak force on swing side (5%) was not significant. No differences in oxygen uptake as well as oxygen cost was found. We concluded that an abduction angle between 0° and 3° is beneficial with respect to upper boHy load, whereas energy requirements did not change.

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