Abstract MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA that regulates gene expression by degrading target mRNAs or inhibiting translation. Although many miRNAs play important roles in various conditions, it is unclear whether miRNAs are involved in motor nerve regeneration. In this study, we identified the possible implication of miR-124 in nerve regeneration using a mouse hypoglossal nerve injury model. The significant down-regulation of miR-124 was observed in injured hypoglossal motor neurons after nerve injury, and this transient down-regulation showed a clear inverse correlation with the up-regulation of KLF6 and STAT3, known as axon elongation factor and regeneration-associated molecules, respectively. Furthermore, the luciferase assay and in vitro gain of function methods supported that both genes could be potent targets of miR-124. These results suggest that injury-induced repression of miR-124 may be implicated in the regulation of expression of several injury-associated transcription factors, which are crucial for appropriate nerve regeneration.