Abstract Surface temperatures of synthetic turf have become a factor of growing interest and concern, particularly in warmer regions like Australia. However, it is unclear which components of the synthetic turf system contribute to surface temperature. The aim of this paper was to compare the surface temperature of 34 different synthetic turf products that were exposed to the same environmental conditions to ascertain which components of the synthetic turf system and which environmental factors contributed to increased surface temperature. A total of 6,120 observations were taken on the 34 products over the summer months, giving 30 observations for each of the variables on each product. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that the type of infill and shockpad had small-medium, but significant, effects on surface temperature (p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively), and the interaction between shockpad and tuft gauge was also significant (p=0.047). Level of solar radiation, ambient temperature and relative humidity (p<0.001 in all instances) were the only environmental variables that significantly influenced surface temperature. These findings confirm that both the composition of the synthetic turf system and environmental factors contribute to synthetic turf surface temperature, thus providing important information for synthetic turf manufacturers developing new cool climate products, or for local government authorities selecting products and/or informing safe play for end-users.