Introduction Splenic pseudocysts are nonparasitic cyst without epithelial lining. We report this case especially by its way of revelation, its large size and its per operative presentation which needed total splenectomy. To this opportunity, we discuss the diagnostic procedure and therapeutic indications. Case presentation A twenty-year old Senegalese woman, was admitted with a three-month history of spontaneous abdominal mass associated with a pain. Ultrasonography and CT scan found the giant splenic pseudocyst with a diameter of 20 cm which needed a total splenectomy by median laparotomy. Conclusion Usually, symptomless splenic cysts are untreated. When surgical treatment is indicated, recommendations are to preserve splenic parenchyma by partial splenectomy or fenestration especially by laparoscopy. Total splenectomy retains some guidance.