The structure of a polysaccharide from Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 has been determined. This polysaccharide was isolated by following the protocol for lipopolysaccharide extraction. On the basis of monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis, fast atom bombardment MS, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS, electron-impact high-resolution MS, one-dimensional (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR and two-dimensional NMR experiments, the structure was shown to consist of a homopolymer of a 3:1 mixture of 5-acetamido-3,5,7, 9-tetradeoxy-7-[(R)- and (S)-3-hydroxybutyramido]-l-glycero-l-manno-nonulosonic acid. The sugar residues are attached via a glycosidic linkage to the OH group of the 3-hydroxybutyramido substituent and thus the monomers are linked via both glycosidic and amidic linkages. In contrast with the Sinorhizobium K-antigens previously reported, which are composed of a disaccharide repeating unit, the K-antigen polysacharide of S. fredii HH103 is a homopolysaccharide.