Abstract Neuromedin S (NMS) was recently isolated from the brains of humans, mice and rats as an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptors FM-3 and FM-4, which have been identified as neuromedin U (NMU) receptors 1 and 2, respectively. To investigate the role of NMS in avian species, we elucidated the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of rat NMS on food intake, body weight, body temperature and gross locomotor activity in adult Japanese quails. NMS significantly decreased food intake (and consequently body weight) in a time-dependent manner during 12-h light period, but increased both body temperature and gross locomotor activity. On the other hand, i.c.v. injection of rat NMU showed the reverse effects of NMS in Japanese quail. These results suggest that NMS may play an important role in regulating food intake and sympathetic nerve activity in the Japanese quail.