Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is more often sexually transmitted and associated with genital recurrent infection. However, HSV-2 neurological manifestations such as meningitis were already reported. We describe a case of meningitis due to HSV-2, preceded by signs suggesting a common cystitis, in a woman with no history of primary or recurrent genital infection. Six months later genital herpetic lesions occurred. One HSV-2 strain was obtained from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and another from genital lesions. The molecular comparative analysis using restriction endonuclease digestion patterns showed the similarity of the two strains. Our report illustrates that HSV-2 infections are underdiagnosed and that molecular techniques can be of value in clarifying the physiopathology of HSV diseases.