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Arabidopsis Immunophilin-like TWD1 Functionally Interacts with Vacuolar ABC Transporters

The American Society for Cell Biology
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Previously, the immunophilin-like protein TWD1 from Arabidopsis has been demonstrated to interact with the ABC transporters AtPGP1 and its closest homologue, AtPGP19. Physiological and biochemical investigation of pgp1/pgp19 and of twd1 plants suggested a regulatory role of TWD1 on AtPGP1/AtPGP19 transport activities. To further understand the dramatic pleiotropic phenotype that is caused by loss-of-function mutation of the TWD1 gene, we were interested in other TWD1 interacting proteins. AtMRP1, a multidrug resistance-associated (MRP/ABCC)-like ABC transporter, has been isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen. We demonstrate molecular interaction between TWD1 and ABC transporters AtMRP1 and its closest homologue, AtMRP2. Unlike AtPGP1, AtMRP1 binds to the C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat domain of TWD1, which is well known to mediate protein-protein interactions. Domain mapping proved that TWD1 binds to a motif of AtMRP1 that resembles calmodulin-binding motifs; and calmodulin binding to the C-terminus of MRP1 was verified. By membrane fractionation and GFP-tagging, we localized AtMRP1 to the central vacuolar membrane and the TWD1-AtMRP1 complex was verified in vivo by coimmunoprecipitation. We were able to demonstrate that TWD1 binds to isolated vacuoles and has a significant impact on the uptake of metolachlor-GS and estradiol-β-glucuronide, well-known substrates of vacuolar transporters AtMRP1 and AtMRP2.

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