Abstract Background/purpose The use of membrane in preventing soft tissue ingrowth during guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedure for better clinical results is controversial. The present study compares and analyzes the clinical results of GBR using the autogenous tooth bone graft (AutoBT; Korea Tooth Bank Co., Seoul, Korea) material with and without the resorbable membrane (Bio-Arm, ACE Surgical. Supply Company, Inc., USA). Materials and methods Patients who received dental implants with simultaneous GBR from the same clinician at the Dental Department of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from March 2009 to May 2012 were selected in this study. A total of 20 patients with a total number of 30 dental implants were included in this study. The patients who received GBR with resorbable membrane were in Group 1 and those without membrane were in Group 2. AutoBT was grafted in all patients. In each group, pre- and postoperative bone loss, regeneration in percentage (%), and complications were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference in pre- and postoperative reduction of bone defect height, bone level change, and bone regeneration in percentage (%) between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion Both groups showed clinically acceptable bone regeneration without any eventful complications. Within the limitation of this study, we can carefully conclude that the use of resorbable membrane is not a critical factor in GBR when using AutoBT.