Abstract Macrophages are stimulable cells able to increase the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species dramatically for a short period of time. Free radicals and other oxidants are able to oxidize the intracellular protein pool. These oxidized proteins are selectively recognized and degraded by the intracellular proteasomal system. We used the mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 to test whether macrophagial cells are able to increase their protein turnover after oxidative stress and whether this is accompanied by an increased protein oxidation. Macrophagial cells are particularly susceptible to bolus additions of hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite. In further experiments we activated RAW264.7 cells with PMA to test whether the production of endogenous oxidants has analogous effects. A clear dependence of the protein turnover and protein oxidation on the oxidative burst could be measured. In further experiments the role of the proteasomal system in the selective removal of oxidized proteins could be revealed exploring the proteasome specific inhibitor lactacystin. Therefore, although oxidants are able to attack the intracellular protein pool in macrophages, these cells are able to remove oxidized proteins selectively and protect the intracellular protein pool from oxidation.