Abstract There is no agreement on the systematic exploration of the fundus oculi (FO) in hypertensive patients, and it is unknown whether the evolution of retinal microcirculatory alterations has prognostic value or not. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the evolution of the arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR) in newly-diagnosed hypertensive patients is associated with better or worse evolution of target organ damage (TOD) during 1 year. A cohort of 133 patients with newly-diagnosed untreated hypertension was followed for 1 year. At baseline and follow-up, all patients underwent a physical examination, self-blood pressure measurement, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, blood and urine analysis, electrocardiogram, and retinography. The endpoint was the favourable evolution of TOD and the total amount of TOD, according to the baseline AVR and the baseline and final difference of the AVR. A total of 133 patients were analyzed (mean age, 57 ± 10.7 years; 59% men). No differences were found in the decrease in blood pressure or antihypertensive treatment between quartiles of baseline AVR or baseline-final AVR difference. Patients with a difference between baseline and final AVR in the highest quartile (>0.0817) had a favorable evolution of left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio, 14.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–206.8) and the amount of TOD (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–6.05). No favorable evolution was found of glomerular filtration rate. There is an association between the evolution of the AVR and the favorable evolution of TOD. Patients with greater increase of AVR have significantly better evolution of left ventricular hypertrophy and amount of TOD.