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Vernalization, Competence, and the Epigenetic Memory of Winter

Authors
Publisher
American Society of Plant Biologists
Publication Date
Source
PMC
Keywords
  • Historical Perspective Essay
Disciplines
  • Biology

Abstract

Vernalization, Competence, and the Epigenetic Memory of Winter by Richard Amasino Plantcell Volume 16(10):2553-2559 October 1, 2004 ©2004 by American Society of Plant Biologists Examples of Plants Requiring Vernalization.(A) A biennial cabbage (Brassica oleracea) variety with an obligate vernalization requirement that had been growing for five years without cold exposure. Amasino R. Plantcell 2004;16:2553-2559 ©2004 by American Society of Plant Biologists Flowering Pathways.(A) Diagram of flowering pathways in Arabidopsis. Amasino R. Plantcell 2004;16:2553-2559 ©2004 by American Society of Plant Biologists Examples of Plants Requiring Vernalization.(A) A biennial cabbage (Brassica oleracea) variety with an obligate vernalization requirement that had been growing for five years without cold exposure. The small plant in my daughter's hands is a summer-annual variety of B. oleracea that flowers rapidly without vernalization.(B) and (C) Summer annual and vernalization-requiring types of henbane (B) and Arabidopsis (C). In both examples, a single-dominant gene is responsible for the vernalization-requiring habit. All plants were grown in long days (inductive photoperiods) without vernalization. The rapid-flowering summer annuals (which have initiated flowering) are at left and the winter-annual types at right. (Henbane images courtesy of Jan Zeevaart.)‏ Flowering Pathways.(A) Diagram of flowering pathways in Arabidopsis. This is a simplified model that does not contain all of the genes involved in flowering time control in Arabidopsis. The thickness of the lines indicates the hierarchy of FLC regulation: FRI overrides the repressive effect of the autonomous pathway and vernalization overrides the effect of FRI.(B) A model of recent advances in the control of flowering by vernalization in wheat. As discussed in the text, wheat VRN1 and VRN2 are not homologous to Arabidopsis. Wheat VRN1 is a MADS domain protein that is most similar to AP1 in Arabidopsis; wheat VRN2 has no known homolog in Arabidopsis

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