This study is focused on the landscape dimension of contemporary cities from a sociological point of view, starting from the concept of «landscape» as defined in the European Landscape Convention of 2000. This innovative definition of «landscape», introduced by the European Landscape Convention, takes the form of a cultural revolution in which the perceptive aspects and the social representations of urban landscapes, as well as the activities that try to improve participation in decision-making processes concerning urban transformations, have a new central role in the local governance. In order to observe if a new possibility of change can actually become reality, this work proposes an empirical research on two case studies, that is two European cities: Strasbourg in France and Genoa in Italy. This research is based on a qualitative methodology and some related techniques, with a division in two different phases of field activities: a first phase in which the «Jeu de Reconstruction Spatiale» (JRS) and several semi-structured interviews were set up for a group of «decision-makers», and a second phase in which a photo-elicitation interview was set up for a group of «urban users». In conclusion, we could make clear that the two case studies show some problems and difficulties concerning an effective application of the values and rules written in the European Landscape Convention, as we usually see in a period of transition or crisis such as the current one.