Abstract N ω-Propyl- l-arginine (NPA) is reported to be a highly selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). This in vivo study observed its role in ischemia/reperf usion (I/R) injury in rat skeletal muscle. Our results showed that NPA infusion significantly increased vessel diameters and blood flow in reperfused cremaster muscle, and slightly increased contractile function in reperfused extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. In addition, NPA treatment slightly increased I/R-mediated downregulation of nNOS and eNOS mRNA and protein levels. Although NPA showed a beneficial role in I/R injury, our in vivo data do not support NPA as a selective nNOS inhibitor. Also, our data do not provide any insight into the mechanism of NPA. Thus, the in vivo mechanism of action of NPA needs to be further identified, and the role of nNOS in skeletal muscle I/R still remains to be determined.