Abstract Hepatitis C is a major health problem for Egypt. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus among different population groups living in urban and in two different rural areas (Suez Canal and North Sinai) of Egypt. Secondary objectives were to study the possible association between multiple blood transfusions, haemodialysis or Schistosomiasis and the seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C. A seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus in the urban blood donor population of 14.5% was found, confirming other reports. In the two rural areas of the Suez Canal and the North Sinai the seroprevalence was 14.4% and 15.5% respectively, showing a comparable seroprevalence in these three different populations. The seroprevalence was 70.4% in haemodialysis patients, 7.7% in health care workers, and 75.6% in thalassaemic children, thus a seroprevalence among multitransfused or haemodialysed patients comparable to the one described in many other countries. Schistosomiasis does not seem to play a role in the seroprevalence of this disease in Egypt.