Brachydorus swarupi sp. n. is described from soil about roots of arecanut palm in Kerala State, India. It is the second species to be described in Brachydorus De Guiran and Germani 1968 and differs from B. tenuis, the type species, by its greater length (1.52-2.34 mm for B. swarupi vs. 1.03-1.32 mm for B. tenuis); longer and more delicate stylet (26-35 [mu]m for B. swarupi vs. 20-23 [mu]m for B. tenuis); head shape with concave protrusion at oral aperture (simple rounded in B. tenuis); shorter isthmus and larger posterior bulb in B. swarupi; shorter tail (in B. tenuis c = 9.7 [8.6-11.5] in female, c = 42.3 [33-48] in male); larger spicules and gubernaculum (22-39 [mu]m and 9 -1 2 [mu]m, respectively, for B. tenuis); and phasmids near posterior connection of caudalalae and tail (almost central on caudalalae of B. tenuis). The relationship of Brachydorus to Dolichodorus is discussed. Key words: taxonomy, nematodes.