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The Effect of Deltamethrin-treated Net Fencing around Cattle Enclosures on Outdoor-biting Mosquitoes in Kumasi, Ghana

Public Library of Science
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045794
  • Research Article
  • Agriculture
  • Agricultural Production
  • Agrochemicals
  • Pesticides
  • Pest Control
  • Biology
  • Microbiology
  • Protozoology
  • Parastic Protozoans
  • Vector Biology
  • Mosquitoes
  • Zoology
  • Entomology
  • Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Tropical Diseases (Non-Neglected)
  • Malaria
  • Vectors And Hosts
  • Anopheles
  • Infectious Disease Control
  • Public Health
  • Preventive Medicine
  • Medicine


Classic vector control strategies target mosquitoes indoors as the main transmitters of malaria are indoor-biting and –resting mosquitoes. However, the intensive use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying have put selective pressure on mosquitoes to adapt in order to obtain human blood meals. Thus, early-evening and outdoor vector activity is becoming an increasing concern. This study assessed the effect of a deltamethrin-treated net (100 mg/m2) attached to a one-meter high fence around outdoor cattle enclosures on the number of mosquitoes landing on humans. Mosquitoes were collected from four cattle enclosures: Pen A – with cattle and no net; B – with cattle and protected by an untreated net; C – with cattle and protected by a deltamethrin-treated net; D – no cattle and no net. A total of 3217 culicines and 1017 anophelines were collected, of which 388 were Anopheles gambiae and 629 An. ziemanni. In the absence of cattle nearly 3 times more An. gambiae (p<0.0001) landed on humans. The deltamethrin-treated net significantly reduced (nearly three-fold, p<0.0001) culicine landings inside enclosures. The sporozoite rate of the zoophilic An. ziemanni, known to be a secondary malaria vector, was as high as that of the most competent vector An. gambiae; raising the potential of zoophilic species as secondary malaria vectors. After deployment of the ITNs a deltamethrin persistence of 9 months was observed despite exposure to African weather conditions. The outdoor use of ITNs resulted in a significant reduction of host-seeking culicines inside enclosures. Further studies investigating the effectiveness and spatial repellence of ITNs around other outdoor sites, such as bars and cooking areas, as well as their direct effect on vector-borne disease transmission are needed to evaluate its potential as an appropriate outdoor vector control tool for rural Africa.

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