Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a special type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is incurable through conventional treatment. This study aimed to analyze the clinical features, therapeutic responses, and prognosis of patients with MCL. Clinical data of 30 patients with MCL treated in our hospital between April 2006 and July 2011 were analyzed. Eighteen patients were treated with CHOP plus rituximab (R-CHOP) regimen, 12 underwent conventional chemotherapy. The median age of the 30 patients was 58 years, 23 were men, all patients had Cyclin D1 overexpression, 29 (96.7%) had advanced disease, 11 (36.7%) had bone marrow involvement, 9 (30.0%) had gastrointestinal involvement, and 15 (50.0%) had splenomegaly. The complete response (CR) rate and overall response rate (ORR) were significantly higher in patients undergoing R-CHOP immunochemotherapy than in those undergoing conventional chemotherapy (38.9% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.187; 72.2% vs. 41.4%, P = 0.098). The difference of 2-year overall survival rate between the two groups was not significant (P = 0.807) due to the short follow-up time. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was higher in R-CHOP group than in conventional chemotherapy group (53% vs. 25%, P = 0.083), and was higher in patients with a lower mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index (MIPI) (51% for MIPI 0-3, 33% for MIPI 4-5, and 0% for MIPI 6-11, P = 0.059). Most patients with MCL were elderly; in an advanced stage; showed a male predominance; and usually had bone marrow involvement, gastrointestinal involvement, or splenomegaly. R-CHOP regimen could improve the CR rate and ORR of MCL patients. MIPI can be a new prognostic index for predicting the prognosis of advanced MCL.