Abstract Mice transgenic with the human poliovirus receptor gene develop clinical signs and neuropathology similar to those of human poliomyelitis when neurovirulent polioviruses are inoculated into the central nervous system (CNS). Factors contributing to disease severity and the frequencies of paralysis and mortality include the poliovirus strain, dose, and gender of the mouse inoculated. The more neurovirulent the virus, as defined by monkey challenge results, the higher the rate of paralysis, mortality, and severity of disease. Also, the time to disease onset is shorter for more neurovirulent viruses. Male mice are more susceptible to polioviruses than females. TGM-PRG-3 mice have a 10-fold higher transgene copy number and produce 3-fold more receptor RNA and protein levels in the CNS than TGM-PRG-1 mice. CNS inoculations with type III polioviruses differing in relative neurovirulence show that these mouse lines are similar in disease frequency and severity, demonstrating that differences in receptor gene dosage and concomitant receptor abundance do not affect susceptibility to infection. However, there is a difference in the rate of accumulation of clinical signs. The time to onset of disease is shorter for TGM-PRG-3 than TGM-PRG-1 mice. Thus, receptor dosage affects the rate of appearance of poliomyelitis in these mice.