Abstract The scientific foundation of mathematics is based on primary notions, primary relations and set of axioms. Is the science of education based on a similar structure? In my article I will present the axiomatic criteria which define the judicial framework of educational activities conceived and applied through a school subject in form of mathematics as didactics of discipline in accordance with each school stage. The axiomatic of the didactics of mathematics presupposes both presentation of the axiomatic criteria of defining and analysing the process of instruction, and rendering evident the standard framework of the instructive activity during the learning process. The specific study subject under consideration is represented by the instructive activity which is planned and realized through the discipline in the context of each school stage.